Cluster C Personality Disorders

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Avoidant Dependant Obsessive Compulsive
 

Cluster C

Avoidant PD

Diagnostic criteria of avoidant personality disorder

A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

  1. Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection.

  2. Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked.

  3. Shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed.

  4. Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations.

  5. Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy.

  6. Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others.

  7. Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing.


The essential features of a personality disorder are impairments in personality (self and interpersonal) functioning and the presence of pathological personality traits. To diagnose avoidant personality disorder, the following criteria must be met:A.Significant impairments in personality functioning manifest by:1.Impairments in self functioning (a or b):a.Identity: Low self-esteem associated with self-appraisal sociallyinept, personally unappealing, or inferior; excessive feelings of shame or inadequacy.
b.Self-direction: Unrealistic standards for behavior associated with reluctance to pursue goals, take personal risks, or engage in new activities involving interpersonalcontact.AND2.Impairments in interpersonal functioning(a or b):a.Empathy: Preoccupation with, and sensitivity to, criticism or rejection, associated with distorted inference of others‟ perspectives as negative.b.Intimacy: Reluctance to get involved with people unless being certain of being liked; diminished mutuality within intimate relationships because of fear of being shamed or ridiculed.B.Pathological personality traitsin the following domains:1.Detachment, characterized by:a.Withdrawal: Reticence in social situations; avoidance of social contacts and activity; lack of initiation of social contact.b.Intimacy avoidance: Avoidance of close or romantic relationships, interpersonal attachments, and intimate sexual relationships.c.Anhedonia: Lack of enjoyment from, engagement in, or energy for life‟s experiences; deficits in the capacity to feel pleasure or take interest in things.2.Negative Affectivity, characterized by:a.Anxiousness: Intense feelings of nervousness, tenseness, or panic, often in reaction to social situations; worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities; feeling fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty; fears of embarrassment.C.The impairments in personality functioning and the individual‟s personality trait expression are relatively stable across time and consistent across situations.D.The impairments in personality functioning and the individual‟s personality trait expression are not better understood as normative for the individual‟s developmental stage or socio-cultural environment.E.The impairments in personality functioning and the individual‟s personality trait expression are not solely due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., severe head trauma).

 

*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition

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For Loved Ones

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Dependent PD

Diagnostic criteria of dependent personality disorder

An excessive and pervasive need to be taken care of, submissive, clinging, needy behavior due to fear of abandonment beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

  1. Difficulty making routine decisions without input, reassurance, and advice from others.

  2. Requires others to assume responsibilities which they should be attending to.

  3. Fear of disagreeing with others and risking disapproval.

  4. Difficulty starting projects without support from others.

  5. Excessive need to obtain nurturance and support from others, even allowing other to impose themselves rather than risk rejection or disapproval.

  6. Feels vulnerable and helpless when alone.

  7. Desperately seeks another relationship when one ends.

  8. Unrealistic preoccupation with being left alone and unable to care for themselves.

*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition

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For Loved Ones

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Obsessive Compulsive PD

Diagnostic criteria of obsessive compulsive personality disorder

A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

1.Is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost.
2.Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met).
3.Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity).
4.Is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification).
5.Is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
6.Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to workwith others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things.
7.Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes.
8.Shows rigidity and stubbornness.
The essential features of a personality disorder are impairments in personality (self and interpersonal) functioning and the presence of pathological personality traits. To diagnose obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, the following criteria must be met:A.Significant impairments in personality functioning manifest by:1.Impairments in self functioning (a or b):a.Identity: Sense of self derived predominantly from work or productivity; constricted experience and expression of strong emotions.b.Self-direction: Difficultycompleting tasks and realizing goals associated with rigid and unreasonably high and inflexible internal standards of behavior; overly conscientious and moralistic attitudes. AND
2.Impairments in Interpersonal functioning(a or b):a.Empathy: Difficulty understanding and appreciating the ideas, feelings, or behaviors of others.b.Intimacy: Relationships seen as secondary to work and productivity; rigidity and stubbornness negatively affect relationships with others.B.Pathological personality traits in the following domains:1.Compulsivity, characterized by:a.Rigid perfectionism: Rigid insistence on everything being flawless, perfect, without errors or faults, including one's own and others' performance; sacrificing of timeliness to ensure correctness in every detail; believing that there is only one right way to do things; difficulty changing ideas and/or viewpoint; preoccupation with details, organization, and order.
2.Negative Affectivity, characterized by:a.Perseveration: Persistence at tasks long after the behavior has ceased to be functional or effective; continuance of the same behavior despite repeated failures.C.The impairments in personality functioning and the individual's personality trait expression are relatively stable across time and consistent across situations.D.The impairments in personality functioning and the individual's personality trait expression are not better understood as normative for the individual"s developmental stage or socio-cultural environment.
E.The impairments in personality functioning and the individual's personality trait expression are not solely due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., severe head trauma).

 

*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition

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For Loved Ones

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